MANUEL I°


MANUEL I°
MANUEL I° (1469–1521), king of Portugal 1495–1521. He was termed Manuel the Great because of the achievements of his reign: Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea passage to India via the Cape of Good Hope (1498) and the acquisition of Brazil (1500). For the Jewish citizens, however, Manuel's reign brought an end to their life in Portugal. Initially Manuel was well disposed to Jews. He retained the esteemed abraham b. samuel zacuto as his astronomer, and removed the Jewish disabilities imposed by his predecessor John II. But in 1496 the king entered a politically motivated marriage with Princess Isabella of Spain, daughter of ferdinand and Isabella, who made their consent conditional to Manuel's ridding Portugal of the Jews. On Dec. 4, 1496, an edict was passed ordering every Jew to leave Portugal before November 1497, on penalty of death. Manuel assured the Jews of every assistance in travel and free departure with their belongings. As the mass emigration got under way, Manuel realized that the loss of his Jewish citizenry would have dire economic results for Portugal. To stem the departures, he ordered all Jews desiring to emigrate to come to Lisbon, supposedly for embarkation. When some 20,000 had convened in Lisbon, Manuel herded them together for forced conversion. On May 30, 1497, he decreed that the Conversos would be free from the Church's discipline for 20 years. When the king learned soon after that the Conversos were emigrating in large numbers, he quickly withdrew their liberty to dispose of property and emigrate. When some 4,000 of the new christians were massacred by a Lisbon mob in 1506, Manuel responded by executing the Dominican friars who had incited the riot, and restored all previous rights and immunities to the New Christians, only to reverse his decision in the year of his death. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Graetz, Hist, 4 (1894, repr. 1949), 372–81, 485–8; Roth, Marranos, 55–66, 86, 196; M. Kayserling, Geschichte der Juden in Portugal (1867), 120–56, 334; J. Mendes dos Remedios,   Os Judeus em Portugal (1895), 275–342; S. Usque, Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel, tr. by M.A. Cohen (1965), 5–7, 202–5.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Manuel I. — Manuel (m, lat. griech.) ist die spanisch portugiesische Form des männlichen Vornamens Emanuel bzw. Immanuel. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Varianten 3 Namenstag 4 B …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Manuel — (m, lat. griech.) ist im Spanischen, Portugiesischen und Griechischen die männliche Form des Vornamens Immanuel. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Namenstag 3 Bekannte Namensträger …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Manuel — Artículos en Wikipedia Todas las páginas que comienzan por «Manuel» Manuel puede referirse a: Manuel, nombre propio de varón. Manuel, linaje castellano de origen real. Manuel, el pueblo de la provincia de Valencia, en España …   Wikipedia Español

  • Manuel — Manuel, a 1 n. p. Nombre propio de persona. ⇒ Manolo, a. 2 (con minúsc.) f. *Coche de alquiler tirado por un caballo, corriente en Madrid a principios del siglo XX. * * * (heb. Ímmānū´ēl) ► Nombre propio de varón, aféresis de Emmanuel, «Dios con… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • manuel — manuel, elle (ma nu èl, è l ) adj. 1°   Qui se fait avec la main. Arts manuels. Correction manuelle. •   Je parlerai bientôt des travaux et des jeux manuels, J. J. ROUSS. Ém. II.    Distribution manuelle, ce que les chanoines et autres reçoivent… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Manuel I — puede referirse a: Manuel I de Avis, rey de Portugal (1495 1521). Manuel I Comneno, emperador romano de Oriente (1143 1180). Manuel I Comneno, emperador de Trebisonda (1218–1263). Manuel I Charitopoulos, patriarca ecuménico de Constantinopla… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Manuel II — puede referirse a: Manuel II de Bragança, rey de Portugal (1908 10). Manuel II Paleólogo, emperador romano de Oriente (1390 1425). Manuel II Comneno, emperador de Trebisonda (1324–1263). Manuel I de Constantinopla, patriarca ecuménico de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Manuel II — may refer to: Manuel II Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor Manuel II of Trebizond, Emperor of Trebizond Manuel II of Portugal, King of Portugal Manuel II, Patriarch of Constantinople This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same… …   Wikipedia

  • manuel — Manuel, [manu]elle. adj. Qui se fait avec la main. Ouvrage, travail manuel, distribution manuelle. Il est aussi substantif, & sert de titre à plusieurs livres, ou abregez qu on peut porter à la main. Manuel de devotion. le Manuel de saint… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Manuel I — may refer to: Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1143 1180) Manuel I of Trebizond, Emperor of Trebizond (1228 1263) Manuel I of Portugal, King of Portugal (1496 1521) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same personal… …   Wikipedia


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